reperiendi

Reflective calculi

Posted in Category theory, Programming by Mike Stay on 2013 May 15

This is mostly for my own benefit.

We start with some term-generating functor T(G, X) parametric in a set of ground terms G and a set of names X.

Now specialize to a single ground term:

T_2(X) = T(1, X)

Now mod out by structural equivalence:

T_3(X) = T_2(X) / \equiv

Let N be a set of names and let M be the set of name-equivalence classes N / \equiv_N (where \equiv_N is yet to be defined—it’s part of the theory of names in which we’re still parametric).

Prequoting and predereference are an algebra and coalgebra of T_3, respectively:

PQ: T_3(M) \to M

PD: M \to T_3(M)

such that

PD \circ PQ: T_3(M) \to T_3(M) = 1_{T_3(M)}.

Real quoting and dereference have to use T_4(X), defined below.

Define N = \mu X.T_2(X). Does N / \equiv = \mu X.T_3(X)? I think so; assuming it does, define

M = \mu X.T_3(X)

so name equivalence is structural equivalence; equivalence of prequoted predereferences is automatic by the definition above.

The fixed point gives us an isomorphism

F: T_3(M) \to M.

We can define PQ = F, PD = F^{-1}, because undecidability doesn’t come into play until we add operational semantics. It’s decidable whether two terms are structurally equivalent. Thus

PD \circ PQ:T_3(M) \to T_3(M)

is the identity, satisfying the condition, and

PQ \circ PD: M \to M

is the identity, which we get for free.

When we mod out by operational semantics (following the traditional approach rather than the 2-categorical one needed for pi calculus):

T_4(X) = T_3(X) / \beta,

we have the quotient map

q_X: T_3(X) \to T_4(X)

and a map

r_X: T_4(X) \to T_3(X)

that picks a representative from the equivalence class.

It’s undecidable whether two terms are in the same operational equivalence class, so q_X may not halt. However, it’s true by construction that

q_X \circ r_X: T_4(X) \to T_4(X)

is the identity.

We can extend prequoting and predereference to quoting and dereference on T_4 by

Q: T_4(M) \stackrel{r_M}{\to} T_3(M) \stackrel{PQ}{\to} M

D: M \stackrel{PD}{\to} T_3(M) \stackrel{q_M}{\to} T_4(M)

and then

D \circ Q

= T_4(M) \stackrel{r_M}{\to} T_3(M) \stackrel{PQ}{\to} M \stackrel{PD}{\to} T_3(M) \stackrel{q_M}{\to} T_4(M)

= T_4(M) \stackrel{r_M}{\to} T_3(M) \stackrel{q_M}{\to} T_4(M)

= T_4(M) \stackrel{id}{\to} T_4(M)

which is what we want for quoting and dereference. The other way around involves undecidability.

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